CSS :root Pseudo Class

The :root pseudo-class selects the element that represents the root of the document.

In HTML, the root element is always <html>.

In SVG and XML, the :root pseudo-class can refer to a higher-level ancestor.

The :root pseudo-class can be linked with pseudo-elements (e.g., ::after) and other pseudo-classes (e.g., :hover).


Selectors Level 4

Selectors Level 3


:root {
  css declarations;

Example of the :root pseudo-class:

<!DOCTYPE html>
      :root {
        background-color: #8ebf42;
        padding: 2em;
      body {
        background-color: #eee;
        padding: 1.5em;
    <h2>:root selector example</h2>
    <p>Lorem ipsum is simply dummy text</p>

Browser support

chrome edge firefox safari opera
4.0+ 12.0+ 3.5+ 3.2+ 10.0+

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What is the purpose of the ':root' pseudo-class selector in CSS?

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