Multiple Regression

In this article, we will delve into multiple linear regression, a powerful machine learning technique for predicting continuous numerical values based on multiple predictor variables. With the help of Python, we will build and analyze a model that can predict a numerical outcome based on multiple input features.

What is Multiple Linear Regression?

Linear regression is a technique used to model the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. When there is only one independent variable, it is called simple linear regression. However, when there are multiple independent variables, it is called multiple linear regression.

In multiple linear regression, the goal is to find the line of best fit that predicts the dependent variable based on the independent variables. This line is determined by minimizing the sum of the squared distances between the observed values and the predicted values. The coefficients of the line represent the relationship between each independent variable and the dependent variable, while the intercept represents the expected value of the dependent variable when all independent variables are zero.

The Dataset

To illustrate multiple linear regression, we will use the Boston Housing dataset, which contains information about various housing attributes in the Boston area. The dataset has 506 rows and 14 columns, with the median value of owner-occupied homes in thousands of dollars as the dependent variable, and 13 independent variables that can be used to predict the median value.

Data Preprocessing

Before we can build the model, we need to preprocess the data. This involves checking for missing values, scaling the data, and splitting it into training and testing sets.

Building the Model

With the data preprocessed, we can now build the multiple linear regression model. We will use the scikit-learn library in Python, which provides a simple and efficient way to implement machine learning models.

Model Evaluation

To evaluate the performance of the model, we will use two metrics: mean squared error (MSE) and R-squared (R2).

Interpretation of Model Coefficients

The coefficients of the model represent the relationship between each independent variable and the dependent variable. A positive coefficient indicates that the variable has a positive effect on the dependent variable, while a negative coefficient indicates the opposite.


In this article, we have explored the concept of multiple linear regression and how it can be used to predict a continuous numerical outcome based on multiple predictor variables. We have used Python and the scikit-learn library to build and evaluate a multiple linear regression model using the Boston Housing dataset. The results show that the model is able to predict the median value of owner-occupied homes with reasonable accuracy, and the coefficients provide insight into the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable.

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