# K-nearest neighbors

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## KNN Algorithm - A Comprehensive Guide

K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm is a machine learning model used for classification and regression. It is a non-parametric model that uses a simple mathematical formula to predict the outcome of a new data point based on its similarity to the existing data points in the training dataset. In this article, we will discuss KNN in detail, including its working principle, applications, and advantages.

## What is the KNN Algorithm?

The KNN algorithm is a type of instance-based learning or lazy learning, where the model makes predictions based on the most similar data points in the training dataset. The KNN algorithm is called a non-parametric model because it does not make any assumptions about the underlying distribution of the data.

The KNN algorithm works in the following steps:

1. Calculate the distance between the new data point and each data point in the training dataset.

2. Select the K nearest data points to the new data point based on the calculated distances.

3. Classify the new data point based on the most common class label among the K nearest data points (in the case of classification) or calculate the average of the K nearest data points (in the case of regression).

## Applications of KNN Algorithm

The KNN algorithm has a wide range of applications, including:

1. Image recognition and object detection.

2. Recommender systems.

3. Fraud detection.

4. Text classification.

5. Medical diagnosis.

The KNN algorithm has several advantages over other machine learning algorithms, including:

1. KNN is easy to understand and implement.

2. KNN does not make any assumptions about the underlying distribution of the data.

3. KNN can handle both classification and regression problems.

4. KNN is a non-parametric model, which means it can fit any complex data distribution.

5. KNN can handle multi-class classification problems.

## Limitations of KNN Algorithm

Although KNN has several advantages, it also has some limitations, including:

1. KNN can be computationally expensive for large datasets.

2. KNN requires a large amount of memory to store the training dataset.

3. KNN is sensitive to the choice of distance metric.

4. KNN performs poorly in high-dimensional spaces.

5. KNN is sensitive to the presence of irrelevant features.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm is a simple yet powerful machine learning model used for classification and regression problems. It works based on the similarity between the new data point and the existing data points in the training dataset. KNN has a wide range of applications, including image recognition, recommender systems, fraud detection, and medical diagnosis. It also has several advantages over other machine learning algorithms, such as ease of implementation and the ability to handle both classification and regression problems. However, KNN also has some limitations, including computational expense for large datasets and sensitivity to irrelevant features.